Time-Shifting Medicines


Modafinil is a medication that is used to treat excessive sleepiness caused by narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, or shift work sleep disorder1. It works by stimulating the brain and increasing alertness and wakefulness2. However, modafinil may also cause some side effects, such as:

  • Headache, nausea, nervousness, dizziness, difficulty sleeping, or stuffy nose. These are the most common side effects of modafinil and usually do not require medical attention.
  • • Fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat, chest pain, mental or mood changes, or allergic reactions. These are more serious side effects of modafinil and may need immediate medical attention13. Allergic reactions may include fever, swollen lymph nodes, rash, itching, swelling, or severe dizziness1.
  • • Reduced effectiveness of hormonal birth control methods, such as pills, patches, or rings. Modafinil may interfere with the way these methods work and increase the risk of pregnancy14. Women who use modafinil should use a non-hormonal method of birth control, such as condoms or diaphragms, while taking modafinil and for one month after stopping modafinil1.
  • • Drug interactions with other medications, such as street drugs, antidepressants, antifungals, antibiotics, or blood thinners. Modafinil may affect the way these medications work or increase the risk of side effects14. Before taking modafinil, tell your doctor about all the medications you are using, including prescription, over-the-counter, herbal, or recreational drugs1.

Chronobiotics Pharmacokinetics


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